Artificial intelligence – Everything you want to know
Table of Contents
- 1 Artificial Intelligence Face of Future?
- 2 What is artificial intelligence?
- 3 How artificial intelligence works?
- 4 A neural network in AI
- 5 Cognitive Computing
- 6 Some supporting technologies for Artificial Intelligence
- 7 Importance of Artificial Intelligence
- 8 Uses of artificial intelligence
- 9 Future of artificial intelligence
- 10 Difference between Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence
- 11 Conclusion a New Start
- 12 Recommended Reading- Must Read:
Artificial Intelligence Face of Future?
Artificial intelligence, when we heard this word lot of things revolving around our mind. Well, you may hear this word before or daily. Yes, daily.
It is not wrong if I say that artificial intelligence creates a hype like never before. We are here (on earth) for thousands of years. Human evolution has seen a lot of changes.
To say frankly, these revolutions makes us better and better. We are developing new technologies and making life more sophisticated.
If someone asks you what the greatest innovation of human is, what will be your answer? Think a bit and tell.
Well, someone says wheal, some say electricity, internet, and the list are on and on. Do you know that one new member will go to add to this list?
You may guess what it is? Yes, it is non-other than artificial intelligence (AI). If someone asks now my smart answer may be artificial intelligence.
Why? You will find your answer as we move deeper into this article.
Some of us may things that artificial intelligence is something like human-like robots or some extra-terrestrial technology. In some worst cases, people are forecasting that one-day artificial intelligence will replace the entire humanity. Is it going to happen?
Well, before going to answer some question like this, why not start with starch. I have some doubt before this.
I think not only you have the doubt but also most of us having the same doubt. You may ask why? Let me represent some of the basic questions. Then we will go to the advanced level.
What is artificial intelligence? Where is artificial intelligence used nowadays? What is the future of artificial intelligence? Like a ton.
Although the artificial intelligence technology is not a new thing, I don’t know why people have a big question mark on their face when some question is asked like this.
However, before going to discuss anything else why not start with the most basic one.
What is artificial intelligence?
First thing first.
Before going to discuss anything about artificial intelligence, we should have understood what this thing is first.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a machine or a computer program to think and learn. In this process, machines are intelligent day by day. The concept of AI is based on the idea of building machines capable of thinking, acting, and learning like humans.
This is the simplest definition I can provide.
To touch more deeply on this let’s take an example.
Do you remember your childhood days? Well, a little bit. What a golden memory those are?
In childhood, we are unknown about most of the things on the earth. So how we know those things?
In a period of time, we learn so many things and try thousands of things. Then only we know the earth and other things.
Now we are grown. So before going to take any step we think and analyze this and then take the appropriate action. How is this possible?
This is only possible because of our learning and experiencing. We are learning in every step of life. Learning means not only from a book. Anything that gives us some lesson.
The exact thing in the case of artificial intelligence.
We are making software programs that can learn and act according to it. We are feeding a huge amount of information the software and capable those to think like a real human.
Because humans think like this. We have stored thousands of our memory and act according to them.
Whenever a new thing comes we collected it and stores in our memory. When there is a need of this we retrieve it and use it in our work. That’s why we are called the most intelligent creature on this planet.
Machines (software programs) are also doing same things. They are utilizing the stored information and storing new information.
In advance cases, scientists are creating machines capable of interacting with their environment and acting upon by received data. In this way, the machines are making intelligent themselves.
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You may find hundreds of complex explanation of artificial intelligence on the internet. This may be the simplest explanation.
After this explanation, I assume that you have no doubt about the most basic question of “what is artificial intelligence?”. Now we may move forward to the advance.
History of artificial intelligence
History of artificial intelligence? What are you talking about? Most of you have some doubt.
You have assumed that Artificial intelligence is a new thing. But the reality is different.
Actually, AI contains a long history. The AI was not the same as you know today. Let us a flashback to the beginning era of AI and visualize the progress.
I have collected the history from some sources.
|Year||Milestone / Innovation|
|1923||Karel Čapek play named “Rossum’s Universal Robots” (RUR) opens in London, the first use of the word “robot” in English.|
|1943||Foundations for neural networks laid.|
|1945||Isaac Asimov, a Columbia University alumni, coined the term Robotics.|
|1950||Alan Turing introduced Turing Test for evaluation of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Claude Shannon published a Detailed Analysis of Chess Playing as a search.|
|1956||John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence. Demonstration of the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University.|
|1958||John McCarthy invents LISP programming language for AI.|
|1964||Danny Bobrow’s dissertation at MIT showed that computers can understand the natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.|
|1965||Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT built ELIZA, an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English.|
|1969||Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey, a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem-solving.|
|1973||The Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University built Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of using vision to locate and assemble models.|
|1979||The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.|
|1985||Harold Cohen created and demonstrated the drawing program, Aaron.|
|1990||Major advances in all areas of AI −
|1997||The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.|
|2000||Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.|
|2001||Honda’s ASIMO robot, an artificially intelligent humanoid robot, is able to walk as fast as a human, delivering trays to customers in a restaurant setting.|
|2004||The first DARPA Grand Challenge, a prize competition for autonomous vehicles, is held in the Mojave Desert. None of the autonomous vehicles finished the 150-mile route.|
|2006||Oren Etzioni, Michele Banko, and Michael Cafarella coin the term “machine reading,” defining it as an inherently unsupervised “autonomous understanding of the text.”|
|2007||Fei Fei Li and colleagues at Princeton University start to assemble ImageNet, a large database of annotated images designed to aid in visual object recognition software research.|
|2009||1 – Google starts developing, in secret, a driverless car. In 2014, it became the first to pass, in Nevada, a U.S. state self-driving test.
2 – Computer scientists at the Intelligent Information Laboratory at Northwestern University develop Stats Monkey, a program that writes sport news stories without human intervention.
|2010||The launch of the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVCR), an annual AI object recognition competition.|
|2011||1 – A convolutional neural network wins the German Traffic Sign Recognition competition with 99.46% accuracy (vs. humans at 99.22%).
2 – Watson, a natural language question answering computer, competes on Jeopardy! and defeats two former champions.
3 – Researchers at the IDSIA in Switzerland report a 0.27% error rate in handwriting recognition using convolutional neural networks, a significant improvement over the 0.35%-0.40% error rate in previous years.
|2012||A convolutional neural network designed by researchers at the University of Toronto achieve an error rate of only 16% in the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge, a significant improvement over the 25% error rate achieved by the best entry the year before.|
|2016||Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeats Go champion Lee Sedol.|
These are the history of AI. In this way, AI is becoming smarter and smarter.
How artificial intelligence works?
After reading the basics you may have the curiosity to know more. It’s awesome.
Why stick with less knowledge. Let’s explore it also. It will be exciting to know the inside working method of the artificial intelligence.
You may have the doubt that how artificial intelligence works actually? How does the magic happen? So let’s see this first.
It’s not actually any magic or anything like that. It’s all about the combination of some methods and technologies.
AI works by combining a large volume of data with fast, iterative processing and very intelligent algorithms. This allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the per-loaded huge amount of data.
To say frankly, AI is not a single piece. AI is a vast field of study that includes many technologies, methods, and theories. These are the major subfields of AI.
Most of the time people considers the AI same as machine learning. Although the two terms are often used interchangeably, they are not the same.
To summarize it in a single sentence, artificial intelligence is a very broad concept, while machine learning is the most common application of AI.
Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems (software) the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed.
To say clearly the intelligent system will have the capability to clarify the surroundings and try to learn new things itself. This is exactly the same as human beings.
Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.
Although machine learning is a very broad concept, the main motive is to allow the computers to learn automatically without human interference.
Sometimes many people confuse between AI and machine learning. Now you may have a clear idea about the two technologies.
A neural network in AI
An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is designed in the same way as our biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.
An ANN is based on a collection of connected units (nodes) called artificial neurons. These neurons are very similar to a biological brain. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, capable of transmitting a signal from one artificial neuron to another. An artificial neuron that receives a signal can process it and then signal additional artificial neurons connected to it. In this way, data is transmitted from one neuron to another. This is the main principle of a neural network.
The original goal of the neural network is to solve problems in the same way that a human brain would.
Deep learning is a machine learning technique that teaches computers to learn by examples. It comes naturally to humans.
In deep learning, a computer model learns to perform classification tasks directly from images, text, or sound.
Cognitive computing is to simulate human thought processes in a computerized model.
This can be achieved by self-learning algorithms that use data mining, pattern recognition, and natural language processing, the computer can mimic the way the human brain works.
Some people say that cognitive computing represents the third era of computing.
We have come across the could tabulate sums (the 1900s) to programmable systems (1950s), and now to cognitive systems.
Computer vision is a technique that uses both deep learning and pattern identification to interpret the content of an image or a video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.
To say more clearly, computer Vision is also a field of Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science that aims at giving computers a visual understanding of the world. Through this technology it create a 3D image of the surrounding and act according to this.
This smart technology is widely using in self-driving vehicles.
Natural language processing
Natural language refers to the way we, humans, communicate with each other.
In this way, natural language processing gives the ability to a computer to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech.
Some supporting technologies for Artificial Intelligence
The above technologies play a major role in the field of AI. In addition to this, there are also some more technologies that support AI.
IoT or Internet of Things: – There is huge hype or Internet of things. IoT produces huge amounts of un-analyzed data from connected devices.
This automates the processing of such data using AI will enable us to make the most of it.
You may say It is a huge provider of data.
Graphical processing units: – GPUs or Graphical Processing Units and a major contributor to AI because they enable the heavy computing which is a must for such interactive data processing.
Advanced algorithms: – Another major contributor to AI is an innovation of advanced algorithms. Day after day advanced algorithms are developed and opens new ways to analyze more data faster and at multiple levels.
Application processing interfaces (API): – Nowadays It is possible to add an AI functionality to an existing product or software. This helps and enables a software to deliver human-like interactions to provide targeted support for certain tasks.
This technology is taking the software services to the next level.
Through this discussion, we can conclude that AI technology consists of several sub-technologies that can make AI superior. Actually, AI is superior because of these major and supporting technologies.
Whenever someone asks you how artificial intelligence works, tell them these many things. If you clarify clearly these many points he/she will never ask anyone the same question. He/she will have a brief idea about it.
The AI itself very technical. So I try my best to clarify it as simple as it possible.
I agree that the AI and its supporting technologies can’t be cover in a single article. AI is vast. But this brief discussion is not less to have some idea on it.
Importance of Artificial Intelligence
We are the most intelligent creature on this earth. We are here for thousands of years. The intelligence drives us to the new future.
We are well-settled with our intelligence. You may have the doubt that why we are towards the AI. What is the need for it?
You may have realized the impact and importance of artificial intelligence. The world has witnessed the importance of AI.
I will discuss some points to tress it. Before that I let me clear your doubt in one line. We are doing so because we want to develop the future technology.
AI adds intelligence to existing products. Means an existing product or services can perform way better by implementing the AI technology.
It not only gives a better output but also gives a flexibility.
Let’s take the smart assistants like Google assistant, Siri (Apple), Alexa (Amazon). These voice assistants give us the flexibility to use the mobiles and other gadgets.
The traditional ways of using phones are gone. Now we can operate it without touching it. The virtual assistants are giving a completely different way to use the mobile phones. According to Google, the voice searches are growing rapidly like never before.
The voice searches are not only limited to mobile phones. You can find various smart devices using this technology and making life more sophisticated.
AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data. But AI is completely different from hardware-driven, robotic automation. Instead of automating each manual tasks, AI performs high-volume, frequent, computerized tasks reliably and without the feeling of tiredness.
Although, in the regular interval, it needs human interaction to repeat the process without any difficulty. It saves human work-power and time.
AI analyzes the huge amount of data. This is the real power of AI. Artificial intelligence system analyses the huge amount of data. I have discussed the deep learning as a supporting technology of AI.
You need lots of data to train deep learning models. This is because they learn directly from the data. The more data you can arrange and feed them, the more accurate the system becomes. You can tell them as data-hungry giants.
To improve the accuracy of the AI you need to collect more and more data and feed to the system. The more data in the system the more it can analyze and gives accurate output.
AI achieves incredible accuracy day after day. I have also discussed the neural networks. You may scroll up and find it above. This also gives AI a boost. AI system is more accurate than last day through deep neural networks.
It is impossible before this.
Let’s take an example. You must use Alexa, Google Search, and Google Photos. Or any one of them.
Do you know these systems are based on deep learning? They keep getting more accurate the more we use them.
Think a bit logically, if AI is not so much accurate why the world is so crazy about it.
This technology is widely used in medical fields. I will discuss the uses of AI just after this.
Data is the new currency. You may have heard this before. The world is hungry for data. Nowadays if you have more and best data of an industry, then you have everything.
You have to just put the data to the AI systems and deep analyze it. If you analyze the data well through AI then no one will superior to you in your industry.
Since the role of the data is now more important than ever before, it can create a competitive advantage. One day will come when the superior will be selected through the scale of data. I think the days are not too far.
Uses of artificial intelligence
Here comes the best part of our discussion. We have discussed a lot of things related to AI. We have covered a long way. From what is AI to how it works and the importance?
After all, we have the curiosity to know what is the uses of artificial intelligence in today’s world? It is obvious to shows curiosity about this.
So, there is a vast use of AI in the world. It is almost impossible to describe all the uses of AI. So I am going to discuss some of the important uses of AI. Let’s see what those are one by one.
Commuting plays a major role nowadays. Everyone wants to reach the destination first. So this creates problems. Reducing commute times is not a simple problem to solve.
In the computing field, AI creates a major role. Whenever we talk about transportation and such kind of things, one name comes first. I.e Google Map.
Google Map uses AI technology to analyze real-time traffic provides appropriate results. Google also uses crowdsourcing technology also.
In this way, Google collects a huge amount of data and analyses it. So we get accurate results like construction under progress or road jam.
You have been using Google Map and already know the functionalities. Do you imagine how many people are using this technology. This technology guiding millions of people in the right direction through all-over the world.
Not only on road transport, AI is used in water transportations and air transportation.
In the future, the AI will play a big role in commuting. We are implementing this technology in more wider areas.
AI has the largest impact on healthcare sectors. Medical devices can interact with doctors directly. IoT devices can doctors can know the patient health status. Smart IoT devices can send reports to the doctor automatically. Some AI applications can provide personalized medicine and X-ray readings.
In healthcare sectors, there is a vast use of deep learning technology. Deep learning technology is a supporting technology of AI. It collects a huge amount of photos and reports from the patient and analyses it deeply.
As a result, the detection of disease and cure is easier. Recently a strength thing happened.
Google’s AI predicts the death of a patient more accurately than doctors. It shows that what is the progress of AI in the medical industry.
AI has saved much life in the past. So AI has shown its faith. More researches are in progress to improve the accuracy. In futures, this will definitely save more lives.
AI also accrued the manufacturing industry. Smart IoT devices are implemented in the manufacturing factories and capable of collecting data.
These devices collected a huge amount of data and process it through AI. After processing the raw data AI can forecast the demand for materials and raw things. It is only possible by collecting a huge amount of data and process through AI systems.
Manufacturing robots can programme through AI and can learn from the surrounding environment. By deploying this type of AI-based robots companies can save the time and capital.
So people think that this AI will reduce the jobs in manufacturing industry. Because a robot can work two or three times more than a human being. Another cool part of robots is they can work a long time in compared to a human being.
The future is uncertain. This may reduce the jobs but there will be still needed of humans to operate them. There will a great coordination of human and machine.
AI also impacts education sectors. Many famous universities using AI-based applications to evaluate students.
You may have heard services like Turnitin. It is a popular tool used by instructors to analyze students’ writing for plagiarism.
This service uses machine learning (part of AI) to detect the plagiarism issues.
Some advanced AI-based applications are detecting students mood and giving suggestions according to that. Students also using some educational apps that teach according to their standards.
In this way, the quality of education is increasing with the AI. We can get the best quality education in same or comparative low prices.
Can you imagine the future when you enter into the class and see there is no human teacher? There may be a robot or an AI-based system ready to teach you. I think these days are not too far.
Banking and finance
Banking and finance sectors use AI technology nowadays. To verify the real person banking applications uses AI technologies.
Most large banks offer the ability to deposit checks through a smartphone app. It eliminates a need for customers to physically deliver a check to the bank.
These applications use machine learning technology to verify the signature of the person and approve it. There is no need for human interference.
Financial institution uses artificial intelligence to determine if a fraudulent transaction. Some research suggests that AI could be used to reduce a bank’s losses on delinquent customers by up to 25%.
The more use of AI can reduce spamming in the financial sectors. This will also reduce corruptions.
Retail industries are growing firstly only because of AI. Through AI it collects a huge amount of data of customers and processes it and analyses deeply.
After the purification of raw data, one industry can easily target a customer and try to sell their products.
In this digital age, one company can target a customer In hundreds of ways. The traditional ways of marketing are gone. It’s AI marketing time.
In this way, the company can show offers and personalized recommendations to consumers. Thus it increases more sales and lead generations.
You have already faced this type of situations. Whenever you visited an e-commerce site and search for something and don’t buy that product. Just after that, where ever you visit (websites), the same product will show you everywhere. This completely shows that they are targeting the intended customers.
Using the AI technology (customer behavior), companies can customize the layout and user interface of their business websites so that more conversion will happen.
This is a win-win situation for both customers as well as companies. Because customers get the best products and companies get their profit.
The sports industry is one of the newest industry to use artificial intelligence.
Sports analyst capture pictures and analysis it through AI. They provide a huge amount of data and to the AI. AI processes the data and provides personalized coaches with reports. It also gives the best suggestion to better organize the game, including optimizing field positions and strategy.
The analyst also uses this technology to still the compotator’s strategies. After analysis through AI, the data can be used for improvements.
A sportsperson can easily know the week areas of his sports and try to improve it with the help of AI.
Do you ever wonder how emails are filtered and categorized? Well, its all because of AI.
Smart filters use AI technology to filters various emails and sort them according to their category.
The filters search for a variety of signals, such as the words in the message, message metadata, senders and many more. According to pre-fed data in its analysis the email and detects spam messages.
The system is also smart and learns from it. The AI-based system continuously updates itself and making smarter.
As a result, we get the best experiences and services. This also protects us from malicious links and virus injections through email.
These are the some of the major uses of artificial intelligence. We can list hundreds of another field where AI is using. But its irritating.
To sum up this you can say, AI is stepping in every single industry. The impact of AI is clearly visible everywhere.
Future of artificial intelligence
The future of artificial intelligence will be bright. Well, it seems like this.
One can see the rise of AI in the far horizon.
Do you watch this year Google I/O 2018? If not, you have to see it now or you gone be missed something. The reason you will know after seeing it.
In this, I/O Google shows the future of AI and its progress. This year Google shows that it’s AI can make calls similar to a human being. Should we be worried? For now, maybe not.
Google using AI technology in all their products and services. In the future it will implement this revolutionary technology widely.
In the future, we will see a big impact on automated transport. Tech giants like Google and others are using AI to power self-driving cars. Some self-driving cars are already running on roads.
AI will put a huge impact on the job. There will still be a number of jobs in the future, but AI will take over many of them.
Climate change is a serious issue which may create a dangerous condition. In this field, we may use AI to save the earth. The process has already started.
Possibly AI will solve issues such as climate change, natural calamities prediction, and so on. Even though it might not happen over-night, there is still a possibility.
Scientists are developing robots that can work exactly as a human.
The best example is Sophia. Sophia is a social humanoid robot. In 2017, Sophia was given citizenship of Saudi Arabia. It is the first robot to get citizenship.
Some big scientists predict that one day AI will replace humans. Well, the future is under darkness.
The days are not too close. This may happen if we allow them to do so.
The possibilities are endless. The only limit is our imagination. I only covered the ones that I think are worth sharing.
Difference between Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence
After seeing the importance and uses of artificial intelligence you may have the doubt. Who’s intelligence is superior, human or machines (software)?
Well, this is obvious to raise these type of questions. We have seen vast uses of AI all over the world so nothing wrong to ask this type of questions. I welcome your query.
Before going to differentiate between these two let me tell something. No matter how advanced the machine or software is, remember one thing. Human has made this AI. How it will overtake us.
- Humans understand things by patterns whereas the machines understand by a set of rules and data.
- We can store and recall information by patterns, but machines do it by some pre-programmed searching algorithms.
- Humans can figure out the complete object even if some part of it is missing or distorted. But in the case of machines, they cannot do it correctly.
- We can think and analyze things more accurately but machines are not capable to do it.
Conclusion a New Start
We have covered almost everything regarding artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is like an ocean. It is never possible to cover each and everything related to it. AI is everywhere.
But I try my best to cover the most important and valuable things regarding artificial intelligence. This is a completely techy topic. So some explanations may seem complicated. So sorry about that.
In AI, one thing I can say that, the more you explore the more you amazed. Yes, it’s a dreamland of technology.
The world has witnessed the impact of the revolutionary artificial intelligence technology. The more to see in the future.
The possibility is infinite. The more we can implement this technology the better result we can get. AI has already covered hundreds of sectors. There is also a huge number of sectors to cover.
Technology is changing very fast. We are rapidly moving towards the future of technology. Who knows the technology seems very advance now may seems very common in future.
AI is a very good thing if it uses for constructive purposes. The other side of the coin is, there may be a change of misuse of this technology. So we have to take care of it.
As time will move on, we will witness more and more AI technologies. Be prepare for it.
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